Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory

 

Reference list for

“Cross-Race Face recognition & Identification”

 

 

Maintained by Roy S. Malpass

 

I. Summary.

 

The current article reviews the own-race bias (ORB) phenomenon in memory for human faces, the finding that own-race faces are better remembered when compared with memory for faces of another, less familiar race. Data were analyzed from 39 research articles, involving 91 independent samples and nearly 5,000 participants. Measures of hit and false alarm rates, and aggregate measures of discrimination accuracy and response criterion were examined, including an analysis of 8 study moderators. Several theoretical relationships were also assessed (i.e., the influence of racial attitudes and interracial contact). Overall, results indicated a "mirror effect" pattern in which own-race faces yielded a higher proportion of hits and a lower proportion of false alarms compared with other-race faces. Consistent with this effect, a significant ORB was also found in aggregate measures of discrimination accuracy and response criterion. The influence of perceptual learning and differentiation processes in the ORB are discussed, in addition to the practical implications of this phenomenon.

(Abstract from Meissner & Brigham, 2001)

 

 

II. Meta Analyses and other literature reviews.

 

Meissner, C. A., & Brigham, J. C. (2001). Thirty years of investigating the other-race effect in memory for faces: A meta,analytic review. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 3-35.

Brigham, J.C., Bennett, L. B., Meissner, C. A. & Mitchell, T. L. (2007). The influence of race on eyewitness memory. in R. C. L. Lindsay, D. F. Ross, J. D. Read & M. P. Toglia (Eds.), The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology (Vol. II): Memory for People. Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.

 

 

III. Empirical Studies published since the latest meta-analysis.

 

MacLin, O. H., & MacLin, M. K. (In press) The role of racial markers in race perception and racial categorization. In R. Adams, N. Ambady, K. Nakayama, & S. Shimojo (Eds.). Social Vision. Oxford University Press.

 

 

IV. Classic studies.

 

Malpass, R. 5., & Kravitz, J. (1969). Recognition for faces of own and other race. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 330-334.

Malpass, R.S., Lavigueur, H., & Weldon, D.E. (1973). Verbal and visual training in face recognition. Perception & Psychophysics, 14, 285-292.

 

 

V. List of studies. (t = mainly theoretical; e = mainly empirical).

 

Ahissar, M. & Hochstein, S. (1998). Perceptual learning. In V. Walsh & J. Kulikowski (Eds.), Perceptual constancy: Why things look as they do (pp. 455—498). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Allport, G. W. & Kramer, B. M. (1946). Some roots of prejudice. Journal of Psychology, 22, 9-39.

Anthony, T., Copper, C. & Mullen, B. (1992). Cross-racial facial identification: A social cognitive integration. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 296-301.

Ayuk, R. E. (1990). Cross-racial identification of transformed, untransformed, and mixed-race faces. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 509-527.

Baenninger, M. (1994). The development of face recognition: Featural or configurational processing? Journal of Experimental Child Psyclwlogy, 57,377-396.

Barkowitz, P. & Brigham, J. C. (1982). Recognition of faces: Own-race bias, incentive, and time delay. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 255-268.

Bennett, L. B., & Brigham, J. C. (2005). The develolment of the cross- ……..

Benton, A. L., Hamsher, K. deS., Varney, N. R. & Spreen, O. (1983). Contributions to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berger, D. G. (1969). They all look alike. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University.

Biederman, I. & Shiffrar, M. M. (1987). Sexing day-old chicks: A case study and expert systems analysis of a difficult perceptual learning task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 640-645.

Bothwell, R. K., Brigham, J. C. & Malpass, R. S. (1989). Cross-racial identification. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 19-25.

Bothwell, R. K., Deffenbacher, K. A. & Brigham, J. C. (1987). Correlation of eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Optimality hypothesis revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 691-695.

Brigham, ]. C., & Ready, D. R. (1985). Own-race bias in lineup construction. Law and Human Behavwr,9,415-424.

Brigham, J. C. & Barkowitz, P. (1978). Do "They all look alike"?: The effect of race, sex, experience, and attitudes on the ability to recognize faces. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8, 306-318.

Brigham, J. C. & Bothwell, R. K. (1983). The ability of prospective jurors to estimate the accuracy of eyewitness identifications. Law & Human Behavior, 7, 19-30.

Brigham, J. C. & Malpass, R. S. (1985). The role of experience and contact in the recognition of faces of own- and other-race persons. Journal of Social Issues, 41(3), 139-155.

Brigham, J. C. & Meissner, C. A. (2000, March). Representation and memory for sameand other-race faces. In J. C. Brigham (Chair), What do we know about the "own-race bias" in face recognition? Symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, New Orleans, LA.

Brigham, J. C. & Williamson, N. L. (1979). Cross-racial recognition and age: When you're over 60, do they still "all look alike?" Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 218-222.

Brigham, J. C. & WolfsKeil, M. P. (1983). Opinions of attorneys and law enforcement personnel on the accuracy of eyewitness identifications. Law & Human Behavior, 7, 337-349.

Brigham, J. C. (1981). The accuracy of eyewitness evidence: How do attorneys see it? Florida Bar Journal, 55, 714-721.

Brigham, J. C. (1990). Target person distinctiveness and attractiveness as moderator variables in the confidence-accuracy relationship in eyewitness identifications. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 11, 101-115.

Brigham, J. C. (1993). College students' racial attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1933-1967.

Brigham, J. C. (2002). Face identification: Basic processes and developmental changes. In M. L.

Brigham, J. C., Bennett, L. B., & Butz, D. (2005). The effect of training in face recognition: When practice does not make perfect. Symposium presentation, American Psychology,Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

Brigham, J. C., Maass, A., Snyder, L. D. & Spaulding, K. (1982). Accuracy of eyewitness identifications in a field setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 673-681.

Brigham, J. C., Meissner, C. A. & Wasserman, A. W. (1999). Applied issues in the construction and expert assessment of photo lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S73-S92.

Brigham, J. C., Ready, D. ]., & Spier, S. A. (1990). Standards for evaluating the fairness of pho, tograph lineups. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 11, 149-163.

Brigham, J. C., Wasserman, A. W. & Meissner, C. A. (1999): Disputed eyewitness identification evidence: Important legal and scientific issues. Court Review, 36, 12-25.

Brigham,]. C., &Barkowitz, P. (1978). Do "They all look alike"? The effect ofrace, sex, experience, and attitudes on the ability to recognize faces. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8, 384-386.

Brigharn, J. C. & Ready, D. J. (1985). Own-race bias in lineup construction. Law & Human Behavior, 9, 415-424.

Bruce, A. J., Beard, K. W. & Tedford, S. (1997). African Americans' and Caucasian American faces. Journal of General Psychology, 124, 143-156.

Buckhout, R., & Regan, S. (1988). Explorations in research on the other,race effect in face recognition. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues: Vol. 1. Memory in everyday life (pp. 40--46). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Burgess, M. C. R. (1988). The cross,race effect in facial recognition: A function of expertise? DissertatWn Abstracts, International SectWn B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58(12,B), 6850.

Burgess, M. C. R. (1997). The cross-race effect in facial recognition: A function of expertise? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

Byatt, G., & Rhodes, G. (1998). Recognition of own,race and other,race caricatures: Implica' tions for models of face recognition. Vision Research, 38, 2455-2468.

Carey, S. (1981). The development of face perception: In G. Davies, H. Ellis, & J. Shepherd (Eds.) , Perceiving and remembering faces (pp. 9-38). New York: Academic Press.

Carey,S., Diamond, R., & Woods, B. (1980). The development of face recognition-A matura, tional component? Developmental Psychology, 16,257-269.

Carroo, A. W. (1986). Other race recognition: A comparison of Black Americans and African subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 135-138.

Carroo, A. W. (1987). Recognition of faces as a function of race, attitudes, and reported cross-racial friendships. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 64, 319-325.

Carroo, A. W. (1988). Arousal in differential recognition. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 67, 696.

Carter, L. F. (1948). The identification of "racial membership." Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 51, 339-341.

Chance, J. E. & Goldstein, A. G. (1979). Reliability of face recognition performance. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 14, 115-117.

Chance, J. E. & Goldstein, A. G. (1987). Retention interval and face recognition: Response latency measures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 415-418.

Chance, J. E. & Goldstein, A. G. (1996). The other-race effect and eyewitness identification. In S. L. Sporer, R. S. Malpass, & G. Koehnken (Eds.), Psychological issues in eyewitness identification (pp. 153-176). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chance, J. E., & Goldstein, A. G. (1981). Depth of processing in response to own and other race faces. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 475-480.

Chance, J. E., Goldstein, A. G. & McBride, L. (1975). Differential experience and recognition memory for faces. Journal of Social Psychology, 97, 243-253.

Chance, J. E., Turner, A. L. & Goldstein, A. G. (1982). Development of differential recognition for own- and other-race faces. Journal of Psychology, 112, 29-37.

Chiroro, P. & Valentine, T. (1995). An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 879-894.

Christensen, E. E., Murry, R. C., Holland, K., Reynolds, J., Landay, M. J. & Moore, J. G. (1981). The effect of search time on perception. Radiology, 138, 361-365.

Chung, M. S., & Thomson, D. (1995). Development of face recognition. British Journal of Psy, chology, 86, 55-87.

Connors, E., Lundregan, T., Miller, N. & McEwan, T. (1996). Convicted by juries, exonerated by science: Case studies in the use of DNA evidence to establish innocence after trial. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Cross, J. F., Cross, J., & Daly, J. (1971). Sex, race, age, and beauty as factors in recognition of faces. Perception and PsycholJhysics, 10,393-396.

Cutler, B. L. & Penrod, S. D. (1995). Mistaken identification: The eyewitness, psychology, and the law. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cutler, B. L., Dexter, H. R. & Penrod, S. D. (1990). Nonadversarial methods for sensitizing jurors to eyewitness evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 1197-1207.

Devenport, J. L., Penrod, S. D. & Cutler, B. L. (1997). Eyewitness identification evidence: Evaluating commonsense evaluations. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 3, 338- 361.

Devine, P. G., & Malpass, R. S. (1985). Orienting strategies in differential face recognition. Per' sonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, II, 33-40.

Diamond, R, & Carey, S. (1986). Why faces are and are not special: An effect of expertise. Jour, nal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 107-117.

Dore, H. A., Brigham, J. C., & Buck, J. (2005). Is there an "other,race effect" in the accuracy of descriptions of people? Unpublished manuscript, Florida State University.

Doty, N. D. (1998). The influence of nationality on the accuracy of face and voice recognition. American Journal of Psychology, 111, 191-215.

Eisen, J. A. Quas, & G. S. Goodman (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Elliott, D. N. & Wittenberg, B. H. (1955). Accuracy of identification of Jewish and non-Jewish photographs. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 51, 339-341.

Elliott, E. S., Wills, E. J. & Goldstein, A. G. (1973). The effects of discrimination training on the recognition of White and Oriental faces. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 2, 71-73.

Ellis, H. D. & Deregowski, J. B. (1981). Within-race and between-race recognition of transformed and untransformed faces. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 27- 35

Ellis, H. D., Davies, G. M. & McMurran, M. M. (1979). Recall of White and Black faces by White and Black witnesses using the Photofit system. Human Factors, 21, 55-59.

Ellis, H. D., Deregowski, J. B., & Shepherd, J. W. (1975). Descriptions of white and black faces by white and black subjects. International Journal of Psychology, 10, 119-123.

Fallshore, M. & Schooler, J. W. (1995). Verbal vulnerability of perceptual expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1608- 1623.

Farah, M. J., Wilson, K. D., Drain, M. & Tanaka, J. N. (1998). What is "special" about face perception? Psychological Review, 105, 482-498.

Feingold, G. A. (1914). The influence of environment on the identification of persons and things. Joumal of Criminal LaŠw and Political Science, 5, 39-51.

Feinman, S. & Entwisle, D. R. (1976). Children's ability to recognize other children's faces. Child Development, 47, 506-510.

Flin, R. H. (1985). Development of face recognition: An encoding switch? British Journal of Psy, chology, 76, 123-134.

Flin, R. H., & Dziurawiec, S. (1989) Developmental factors. In A. Young & H. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of research on face Processing. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Fodor, J. (1983). The modularit), of the mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Galper, R. E. (1973). "Functional race membership" and recognition of faces. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 37, 455-462.

Gibson, E. J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Glanzer, M. & Adams, J. K. (1985). The mirror effect in recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 13, 8-20.

Glanzer, M. & Adams, J. K. (1990). The mirror effect in recognition memory: Data and theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 5-16.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1971). Visual recognition memory for complex configurations. Perception & Psychophysics, 9, 237-241.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1976). Measuring psychological similarity of faces. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 7, 407-408.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1978). Judging face similarity in own and other races. Journal of Psychology, 98, 185-193.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1979). Do "foreign" faces really look alike? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 13, 111-113.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1980). Memory for faces and schema theory. Journal of Psychology, 105, 47-59.

Goldstein, A. G. & Chance, J. E. (1985). Effects of training on Japanese faces recognition: Reduction of the other-race effect. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 211-214.

Goldstein, A. G. (1979). Race-related variation of facial features: Anthropometric data I. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 13, 187-190.

Greene, E. (1988). Judge's instruction on eyewitness testimony: Evaluation and revision. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 252-276.

Haider, H. & Frensch, P. A. (1996). The role of information reduction in skill acquisition. Cognitive Psychology, 30, 304-337.

Haider, H. & Frensch, P. A. (1999). Eye movement during skill acquisition: More evidence for the information-reduction hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 172-190.

Hay, D. C., & Young, A.W. (1982). The human face. In A.W. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and parhol, ogy in cognitive functions (pp. 173-202). New York: Academic Press.

Helsen, W. & Pauwels, J. M. (1993). The relationship between expertise and visual information processing in sport. In J. L. Starkes, & F. Allard (Eds.), Cognitive issues in motor expertise (pp. 109-134). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Hintzman, D. L. (1988). Judgments of frequency and recognition memory in a multipletrace memory model. Psychological Review, 95, 528-551.

Hirshman, E. (1995). Decision processes in recognition memory: Criterion shifts and the list-strength paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 302-313.

Horowitz, E. L. & Horowitz, R. E. (1938). Development of social attitudes in children. Sociometry, 1, 301-338.

Hosie, J. A. & Milne, A. B. (1995). Distinctiveness and memory for unfamiliar faces. In T. Valentine (Ed.), Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition (pp. 95-112). London: Routledge.

Jalbert, N. L. & Getting, J. (1992). Racial and gender issues in facial recognition. In F. Losel, D. Bender, & T. Bliesener (Eds.), Psychology and law: International perspectives (pp. 309-316). Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.

Johnson, B. T., Mullen, B. & Salas, E. (1995). Comparison of three major meta-analytic approaches. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 94-106.

Johnson, K. E. & Mervis, C. B. (1997). Effects of varying levels of expertise on the basic level of categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 126, 248-277.

Johnson, K. E. & Mervis, C. B. (1998). Impact of intuitive theories on feature recruitment throughout the continuum of expertise. Memory & Cognition, 26, 382-401.

Juslin, P., Olsson, N., & Winman, A. (1996). Calibration and diagnosticity of confidence in eye, witness identifications: Comments on what can be inferred from the low confidence,accuracy relationship. Journal of EXJ)erimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1304-1316.

Kamphaus, R. W., Beres, K. A., Kaufman, A. S. & Kaufman, N. L. (1996). The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). In C. S. Newmark (Ed.), Major psychological assessment instruments (pp. 348-399). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kassin, S. M., Ellsworth, P. C. & Smith, V. L. (1989). The "general acceptance" of psychological research on eyewitness testimony: A survey of the experts. American Psychologist, 44, 1089-1098.

Kassin, S. M., Tubb, V. A., Hosch, H. M., & Memon, A. (2001). On the "General Acceptance" of eyewitness testimony research: A new survey of the experts. American Psychologist, 56, 405-416.

Katzev, R. D. & Wishart, S. S. (1985). The impact of judicial commentary concerning eyewitness identifications on jury decision making. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 76, 733-745.

Klahr, D. (1992). Information,processing approaches to cognitive development. In M. H. Born' stein & M. E. Lamb (Eels.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (3rd ed., pp. 273336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kuhn, D. (1992). Cognitive development. In M. H. Bomstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.) , Developmen, tal psychology: An advanced textbook (3rd ed., pp. 211-272). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lavrakas, P. J., BUri, J. R., & Mayzner, M. S. (1976). A perspective of the recognition of other race faces. Perception and Psychophysics, 20, 475-481.

Lee, J. 5., & Goodman, G. (2000). The development ofmemory for own, and other,racial/ethnic faces. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Davis.

Leippe, M. R. (1995). The case for expert testimony about eyewitness memory. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 909-959.

Lesgold, A., Glaser, R., Rubinson, H., Klopfer, D., Feltovich, P. & Wang, Y. (1988). Expertise in a complex skill: Diagnosing x-ray pictures. In M. Chi, R. Glaser, & M. Fair (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. 311-342). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Levin, D. T. & Lacruz, I. (1999, November). An alternative to the encoding expertise explanation for the cross-race recognition deficit. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, CA.

Levin, D. T. (1996). Classifying faces by race: The structure of face categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1364-1382.

Levin, D. T. (2000). Race as a visual feature: Using visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks to understand face categories and the cross race recognition deficit. Journal of Experi, mental Psychology; General, 129,559-574.

Li,J. C., Dunning, D., & Malpass, R. S. (1998, March). Cross,racial identification among European, Americans: Basketball fandom and the contact hypothesis. Paper presented at the American Psy, chology-Law Society, Redondo Beach, CA.

Lindsay, D. 5., Nilsen, E., & Read, J. D. (2000). Witnessing,condition heterogeneity and wit, nesses' versus investigators' confidence in the accuracy of witnesses' identification decisions. Law & Human Behavior. 24, 685-697.

Lindsay, D. S., Jack, P. C. & Christian, M. A. (1991). Other-race face perception. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 587-589.

Lindsay, R. C. & Wells, G. L. (1983). What do we really know about cross-race eyewitness identification? In S. M. A. Lloyd-Boystock, & B. R. Clifford (Eds.),

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Wells, G. L. (1983). What do we really know about cross,race identification? In S. M. A. Lloyd,Bostock & B. R. Clifford (Eds.), Evaluating witness evidence. Chichester: Wiley.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Ross, D. F., Smith, S. M., & Flanigan, S. (1999). Does race influence measures of lineup fairness? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, SI09-5119.

Lindsay, R. C., Wells, G. L. & O'Connor, F. J. (1989). Mock-juror belief of accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses: A replication and extension. Law & Human Behavior, 13, 333-339.

Lindsay, R. C., Wells, G. L. & Rumpel, C. M. (1981). Can people detect eyewitnessidentification accuracy within and across situations? Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 79-89.

Lindzey, G. & Rogolsky, S. (1950). Prejudice and identification of minority group membership. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 45, 37-53.

Lipsey, M. W. (1994). Identifying potentially interesting variables and analysis opportunities. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 111-124). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Luce, T. S. (1974). The role of experience in inter,racial recognition. Personality & Social Psy, chology Bulletin, I, 39-41.

Maclin, O. H., & Malpass, R. S. (2003). The ambiguous race face illusion. Perception, 32, 249-252.

Maclin, O. H., & Malpass, R. S. (200l). Racial categorization of faces: The ambiguous race face effect. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7,98-118.

Maclin, O. H., Maclin, M. K., & Malpass, R. S. (200l). Race, arousal, attention, exposure and delay: An examination of factors moderating face recognition. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 134-152.

Maclin, O. H., Van Sickler, B. R., Maclin, M. K., & Li, A. (2004). A re,examination of the cross,race effect: The role of race, inversion, and basketball trivia. North American]oumal of Psychology, 6, 189-204.

Macmillan, N. A. & Creelman, C. D. (1990). Response bias: Characteristics of detection theory, threshold theory, and "nonparametric" indexes. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 401-413.

Malina, A. C., Bowers, D. A., Millis, S. R. & Uekert, S. (1998). Internal consistency of the Warrington Recognition Memory Test. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 86, 1320- 1322.

Malpass, R. S. (1974, September). Racial bias in eyewitness identification. Paper presented at the 82nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Malpass, R. S. (1981). Training in face recognition. In G. Davies, H. Ellis, &J. Shepherd (Eds.), Perceiving and remembering faces (pp. 271-285). London: Academic Press.

Malpass, R. S. (1988). Psychological differentiation, gaze and face recognition. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues: Volume L Memory in everyday life (pp. 145-150). New York: Wiley.

Malpass, R. S. (1990). An excursion into utilitarian analyses, with side trips. Behavioral Science Research, 24, 1-15.

Malpass, R. S., Corey, D., Parada, M., Chavez, J., Bowles, S. & McQuiston, D. (1998, March). Reliability of face recognition: Take two. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Redondo Beach, CA.

Malpass, R. S., Erskine, D. M. & Vaughn, L. L. (1988, April). Matching own- and other-race faces. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Buffalo, NY.

McClelland, J. L. & Chappell, M. (1998). Familiarity breeds differentiation: A subjectivelikelihood approach to the effects of experience in recognition memory. Psychological Review, 105, 724-760.

Meissner, C. A. & Brigham, J. C. (in press). A meta-analysis of the verbal overshadowing effect in face identification. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Meissner, C. A., Brigham, J. C., & Butz, D. (2005). Memory for own, and other,race faces: A dual,process approach. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19,545-567.

Memon, A., Bartlett, J. C., Rose, R., & Gray, C. (2003). The aging eyewitness: The effects of face, age and delay upon younger and older observers. British Joumal of Gerontology, 58,338-345.

Neil v. Biggers, 409 U.S. 188 (1972).

Ng, W., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1994). Cross,race facial recognition: Failure of the contact hypoth, esis. Journal of Cmss,Cultural Psychology, 25, 217-232.

OToole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D. & Abdi, H. (1994). Structural aspects of face recognition and the other-race effect. Memory & Cognition, 22, 208-224.

Padgett, K. (1997). A categorical investigation of the other-race effect in cross-race facial recognition. Unpublished honor's thesis, Florida State University.

Patel, V. L., Arocha, J. F., & Kaufman, D. R. (1994). Diagnostic reasoning and medical expertise. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 31, 187-254.

Penrod, S. D. & Cutler, B. L. (1995). Witness confidence and witness accuracy: Assessing their forensic relation. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 817-845.

People v. Dixon, 410 N.E. 2d 252 (111. App. 1980).

Pezdek, K., Blandon,Gitlin, I., & Moore, C. (2003). Children's face recognition memory: More evidence for the cross,race effect. Journal of Applied Psycholo!.'Y, 88, 760-763.

Platz, S. J. & Hosch, H. M. (1988). Cross-racial/ethnic eyewitness identification: A field study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 972-984.

Poole, D. A., & Lamb, M. E. (1998). lnvestigatit'e interviews of children: A guide for helping profes, sianals. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Proctor, R. W. & Dutta, A. (1995). Perceptual skill. Skill acquisition and human performance (pp. 33-65). London: Sage Publications.

Prospero, M., Corey, D., Malpass, R. S., Parada, M. & Schreiber, N. (1996, February). 7s face recognition an ability? On the reliability of face recognition. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Hilton Head, SC.

Rattner, A., Weimann, G. & Fishman, G. (1990). Cross-ethnic identifications and misidentifications by Israelis. Sociology & Social Research, 74, 73-79.

Raudenbush, S. W. (1994). Random effects models. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 301-322). New York: Sage.

Reingold, E. M., Charness, N., Pomplun, M. & Stampe, D. M. (in press). Visual span in expert chess players: Evidence from eye movements. Psychological Science.

Reynolds, J. K., & Pezdek, K. (1992). Face recognition memory: The effects of exposure duration and encoding instruction. AJJplied Cognitive PSycllOlo1.'Y, 6, 279-292.

Rhodes, G., Brake, S., Taylor, K. & Tan, S. (1989). Expertise and configural coding in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 313-331.

Rodin, M. J. (1987). Who is memorable to whom? A study of cognitive disregard. Social Cogni, tion, 5, 144-165.

Rosenthal, R. (1994). Parametric measures of effect size. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 111-124). New York: Sage.

Sangrigoli, 5., Pallier, C., Argenti, AAv1., Ventureyra, V. A. G., & de Schonen, S. (2005). Re, versibility of the other,racc effect in face recognition during childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 440-444.

Secord, P. F., Bevan, W. & Katz, B. (1956). The Negro stereotype and perceptual accentuation. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 53, 78-83.

Shapiro, P. N. & Penrod, S. (1986). Meta-analysis of facial identification studies. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 139-156.

Shea, J. B. & Paull, G. (1996). Capturing expertise in sports. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence (pp. 321-336). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Shepherd, J. (1981). Social factors in face recognition. In G. Davies, H. Ellis, & J. Shepherd (Eds.), Perceiving and remembering faces (pp. 55-79). San Diego: Academic Press.

Shepherd, J. W. & Deregowski, J. B. (1981). Races and faces: A comparison of the responses of Africans and Europeans to faces of the same and different races. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 125-133.

Shepherd, J. W., Deregowski, J. B. & Ellis, H. D. (1974). A cross-cultural study of recognition memory for faces. International Journal of Psychology, 9, 205-2 ll.

Shepherd, J. W., Deregowski,]. B., & Ellis, H. D. (1974). A cross,cultural study of recognition memory for faces. International]oumal of Psychology, 9, 205-211.

Shepherd, J. W., Gibling, F., & Ellis, H. D. (l991). The effects of distinctiveness, presentation time and delay on face recognition. EuroJJeanJoumal of Cognitive Psycholog)', 3, 137-145.

Shiffrin, R. M. & Steyvers, M. (1997). A model of recognition memory: REM—retrieving effectively from memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 145-166.

Slone, A., Brigham, J. C., & Meissner, C. A. (2000). Social and cognitive factors affecting the own,race bias in whites. Basic and ApJJlied Social Psychology, 22, 71-84.

Smith, S. M., Stinson, V., & Prosser, M. A. (2004). Do they all look alike? An exploration of decision#making strategies in the cross,race facial identifications. Canadian Journal of BellQv, ioural Science, 36, 146-154.

Soukop, V. M., Bimbela, A. & Schiess, M. C. (1999). Recognition memory for faces: Reliability and validity of the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (RMT) in a neurological sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 6, 287-293.

Sporer, S. L. (1991). Deep-Deeper-Deepest? Encoding strategies and the recognition of hu, man faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17,323-333.

Sporer, S. L. (1992). Das Wiedererkennen von Gesichtem [Recognizing faces]. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz/Psychologie Verlags Union. [Experiments 15, 16, and 1 71

Sporer, S. L. (1999, July). The own-race bias in Germany: Testing the contact hypothesis with Turks and Germans. Paper presented at the 4th European Conference on Psychology and Law of the American Psychology-Law Association and the European Psychology-Law Association, Dublin, Ireland.

Sporer, S. L. (2001). Recognizing faces of other ethnic groups: An integration of theories. Psy, c/lOlogy, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 36-97.

Sporer, S. L., Penrod, S. D., Read, J. D. & Cutler, B. L. (1995). Choosing, confidence, and accuracy: A meta-analysis of the confidence-accuracy relation in eyewitness identification studies. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 315-327.

State v. Cromedy, 158 N.J. 112 (1999).

Swope, T. M. (1994). Social experience, illusory correlation and facial recognition ability. Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University.

Tanaka, J. W. & Taylor, M. (1991). Object categories and expertise: Is the basic level in the eye of the beholder? Cognitive Psychology, 23, 457-482.

Tanaka. J. W, & Gauthier. I. (1997). Expertise in object and face recognition. Psyclwlogy ofLeam, ing and Motivation, 36, 83-125.

Teitelbaum, S. & Geiselman, R. E. (1997). Observer mood and cross-racial recognition of faces. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 93-106.

Thompson, C. (1987). A language effect in voice identification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25. 121-131.

Thomson, D. M. (1986). Face recognition: More than a feeling of familiarity? In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, &A. Young (Eds.). Aspects offace processing (pp. 391-399). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Thomson. D. M. (1989). Issues posed by developmental research. In A. W. Young & H. D. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of research on face processing (pp. 391-399). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1986). The effect of race, inversion and encoding activity upon face recognition. Acta Psychologica, 61, 259-273.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1988). Mental rotation of faces. Memory & Cognition, 16, 556-566.

Valentine, T. & Endo, M. (1992). Towards an exemplar model of face processing: The effects of race and distinctiveness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44A, 671-703.

Valentine, T. (1988). Upside-down faces: A review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 471-491.

Valentine, T. (1991). A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion and race on face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43A, 161-204.

Valentine, T., & Bruce, V. (1986). The effect of race, inversion, and encoding activity upon face recognition. Acta Psychological 61, 259-273.

Valentine, T., Chiroro, P., & Dixon, R. (1995). An account of the other race effect and the contact hypothesis based on a 'face space' model of face recognition. In T. Valentine (Ed.), Cognitive and computational aspects offace recognition: Exploration offace space (pp. 69-94). London: Routledge.

Valentine, T., Harris, N. Colom Pierta, A. & Darling, S. (2003)., Are Police Video Identifications Fair to African–Caribbean Suspects? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 459-476

Walk, R. D. (1978). Perceptual learning. In E. C. Carterette, & M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception: Vol. IX. Perceptual processing (pp. 257-297). New York: Academic Press.

Warrington, E. K. (1984). Recognition Memory Test. Windsor, Ontario, Canada: NFERNelson.

Weimann, G., Fishman, G. & Rattner, A. (1986). Social distance and misidentification. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 27, 217-225.

Wells, G. L. (1978). Applied eyewitness-testimony research: System variables and estimator variables. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 36, 1546-1557.

Wells, G. L., Small, M., Penrod, S., Malpass, R. S., Fulero, S. M., & Brimacombe, C. A. E. (1998). Eyewitness identification procdures: Recommendations for lineups and photo, spreads. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 603-647.

Wells, G. L., Wright, E. F. & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Witnesses to crime: Social and cognitive factors governing the validity of people's reports. In R. Roesch, S. D. Hart, & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), Psychology and law: The state of the discipline (pp. 53-87). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Woodhead, M. M., Baddeley, A. D., & Simmonds, D. C. V. (1979). On training people to rec, ognize faces. Ergonomics, 22, 333-343.

Wright, D. B., & Stroud, J. N. (2002). Age differences in lineup identification accuracy: People are better with their own age. Law & Human Behavior, 26, 641-654.

Wright, D. B., Boyd, C. E. & Tredoux, C. G. (1999, June). Own-race bias in South Africa and England. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, Boulder, cO.

Wright, D. B., Boyd, C. E., & Tredoux, C. G. (2003). Inter,racial contact and the own..race bias for face recognition in South Africa and England. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17,365-373.

Wright, D. B., Boyd, C. E., &, Tredoux, C. G. (200l). A field study of own..race bias in South Africa and England. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 7, 119-133.

Yarmey, A. D. & Jones, H. P. T. (1983). Is the psychology of eyewitness identification a matter of common sense? In S. Lloyd-Bostock, & B. R. Clifford (Eds.), Evaluating witness evidence: Recent psychological research and new perspectives (pp. 13-40). Chichester, England: Wiley.

Yarmey, A. D. (1979). The psychology of eyewitness testimony. New York: Free Press.

Yin, R. K. (1969). Looking at upside-down faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 141-145.

 

 

VI. List of Legal Cases.

 

United States v. Downing, 753 F.2d 1224 (3rd Cir. 1985).

United States v. Hudson, 884 F.2d 1016 (7th Cir. 1989).

United States v. Norwood, 939 F.Supp. 1132 (D. NJ. 1996).

United States v. Smith, 736 F.2d 1103 (6th Cir. 1984).

United States v. Stevens, 736 F.2d 1103 (6th Cir. 1984).

United States v. Telfaire, 469 F.2d 552 (D.C. Cir. 1972).

United States v. Watson, 587 F.2d 365 (7th Cir. 1978).