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Pre-Trial Publicity

Developed by Larissa A. Schmersal

Arbuthnot, J., Myers, B., & Leach, J. (2002). Linking juror prejudgment and pretrial publicity knowledge: some methodological considerations. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20, 52-71.

Bornstein, B. H., Whisenhunt, B. L., Nemeth, R. J., & Dunaway, D. L. (2002). Pretrial publicity and civil cases: A two-way street? Law and Human Behavior, 26, 3-17.

Bruschke, J., & Loges, W.E. (2004). Free press vs. fair trials: Examining publicity’s role in trial outcomes. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Bruschke, J. C., & Loges, W. E. (1999). The relationship between pretrial publicity and trial outcomes. Journal of Communication, 49, 104-120.

Campbell, D. S. (1994). Free press v. fair trial: Supreme Court decisions since 1807. New York: Praeger.

Carroll, J. S., Kerr, N. L., Alfini, J. J., Weaver, F. M., MacCoun, R. J., & Feldman, V. (1986). Free press and fair trial: The role of behavioral research. Law and Human Behavior, 100, 187-201.

Costantini, E., & King, J. (1980). The partial juror: Correlates and causes of prejudgment. Law and Society Review, 15, 9-40.

Davis, R. W. (1986). Pretrial publicity, the timing of the trial, and mock jurors' decision processes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 16, 590-607.

Devenport, J.L., Studebaker, C.A., & Penrod, S.D. (1999). Perspectives on jury decision- making: Cases with pretrial publicity and cases based on eyewitness identifications. In F.T. Durso (Ed.) Handbook of applied cognition. (pp. 819-845). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Dexter, H. R., Cutler, B. L., & Moran, G. (1992). A test of voir dire as a remedy for the prejudicial effects of pretrial publicity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 819-832.

Devine, D.J., Clayton, L.D., Dunford, B.B., Seying, R., & Pryce, J. (2001). Jury decision making: 45 years of empirical research on deliberating groups. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 622-727.

Dixon, T.L., & Linz, D. (2002). Television news, prejudicial pretrial publicity, and depiction of race. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 46, 112-136.

Fein, S., McCloskey, A. L., & Tomlinson, T. M. (1997). Can the jury disregard that information? The use of suspicion to reduce the prejudicial effects of pretrial publicity and inadmissible testimony. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1215-1226.

Fein, S., Morgan, S. J., Norton, M. I., & Sommers, S. R. (1997). Hype and suspicion: The effects of pretrial publicity, race, and suspicion on jurors’ verdicts. Journal of Social Issues, 53, 487-502.

Frasca, R. (1988). Estimating the occurrence of trials prejudiced by press coverage. Judicature, 27, 162-170.

Freedman, J. L., Martin, C. K., & Mota, V. L. (1998). Pretrial publicity: Effects of admonition and expressing pretrial opinions. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 3, 255-270.

Freedman, J. L., & Burke, T. M. (1996). The effect of pretrial publicity: The Bernardo case. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 38, 253-270.

Fulero, S. M. (2002). Afterword: The past, present, and future of applied pretrial publicity research. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 127-133.

Fulero, S. M. (1987). The role of behavioral research in the free press/fair trial controversy. Law and Human Behavior, 11, 259-264.

Greene, E., & Wade, R. (1988). Of private talk and public print: General pre-trial publicity and juror decision-making. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2, 123-135.

Greene, E., & Loftus, E. F. (1984). What’s new in the news? The influence of well- publicized news events on psychological research and courtroom trials. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 211-221.

Hoiberg, B.C., & Stires, L.K. (1973). Effects of pre-trial publicity and juror traits on the guilt attributions of simulated jurors. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 269-270. 

Hoiberg, B. C., & Stires, L. K. (1973). The effect of several types of pretrial publicity on the guilt attributions of simulated jurors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 267-275.  

Honess, T. M., Charman, E. A., & Levi, M. (2003). Factual and affective/evaluative recall of pretrial publicity: Their relative influence on juror reasoning and verdict in a simulated fraud trial. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1404-1416.

Hope, L., Memon, A. & McGeorge, P. (2004). Understanding pretrial publicity: Predecisional distortion of evidence by mock jurors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10, 111-119.

Hough, G. A. (1970). Felonies, jury trial, and news reports. In C. R. Bush (Ed.), Free press and fair trial: Some dimensions of the problem (pp. 36-48). Atlanta: University of Georgia Press.

Howitt, D. (1982). Pre-trial publicity: The case for reform. Current Psychological Reviews, 2, 311-322.

Imrich, D., Mullin, C., & Linz, D. (1995). Measuring the extent of pretrial publicity in major American newspapers: A content analysis. Journal of Communication, 45, 94-117.

Kaplan, M.F., & Miller, L.E. (1979).  A model of cognitive processes in jurors.  Representative Research in Social Psychology, 10, 48-60.

Jones, R. M. (1991). The latest empirical studies on pretrial publicity, jury bias, and judicial remedies-not enough to overcome the first amendment right of access to pretrial hearings. American University Law Review, 40, 841-848.

Kerr, N. L. (1994). The effects of pretrial publicity on jurors. Judicature, 78, 120-127.

Kerr, N. L., Kramer, G. P., Carroll, J. S., & Alfini, J. J. (1991). On the effectiveness of voir dire in criminal cases with prejudicial pretrial publicity: An empirical study. American University Law Review, 40, 665-701.

Kerwin, J., & Shaffer, D. R. (1994). Mock jurors versus mock juries: The role of deliberations in reactions to inadmissible testimony. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 153-162.

Kline, F. G., & Jess, P. H. (1966). Prejudicial publicity: Its effect on law school mock juries. Journalism Quarterly, 43, 113-116.

Kramer, G. P., Kerr, N. L., & Carroll, J. S. (1990). Pretrial publicity, judicial remedies, and jury bias. Law and Human Behavior, 14, 409-438.

Kovera, M. B. (2002). The effects of general pretrial publicity on juror decisions: An examination of moderators and mediating mechanisms. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 43-72.   Kulish, M. (1998). The public's right of access to pretrial proceedings versus the accused's right to a fair trial. Army Law, 1998, 1-15.

Lieberman, J.D., & Arndt, J. (2000). Understanding the limits of limiting instructions: Social psychological explanations for the failures of instructions to disregard pretrial publicity and other inadmissible evidence. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 677-711.

Linz, D., & Penrod, S. D. (1992). Exploring the First and Sixth Amendments: Pretrial publicity and jury decisionmaking. In D. K. Kagehiro & W. S. Laufer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and law (pp. 3-20). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Lofton, J. (1966). Justice and the Press. Boston: Beacon Press.

London, K., & Nunez, N. (2000). The effect of jury deliberations on jurors’ propensity to disregard inadmissible evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 932-939.

Lowenstein, L.F. (1980). Are juries impartial? Police Journal, 12, 28-30.

Medina, H. R. (1967). Freedom of the press and fair trial: Final report with recommendations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Moran, G., & Cutler, B.L. (1997). Bogus publicity items and the contingency between awareness and media-induced pretrial prejudice. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 339-344.

Moran, G., & Cutler, B. L. (1991). The prejudicial impact of pretrial publicity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 345-367.

Mullin, C., Imrich, D.J., Linz, D. (1996). The impact of acquaintance rape stories and case-specific pretrial publicity on juror decision making. Communication Research, 23, 100-135.

Newsom, A. (2000). Pretrial publicity and individual voir dire: What has the Florida Supreme Court done to the jury selection process? Florida Law Review, 52, 1039-1072.

Nietzel, M. T., & Dillehay, R. C. (1983). Psychologists as consultants for changes of venue. Law and Human Behavior, 7, 309-335.

Norwood, E. A. (1986). The prosecutor and pretrial publicity: The need for a rule. The Journal of the Legal Profession, 11, 169-186.

Ogloff, J. R. P., & Vidmar, N. (1994). The impact of pretrial publicity on jurors: A study to compare the relative effects of television and print media in a child sex abuse case. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 507-525.

Otto, A. L., Penrod, S. D., & Dexter, H. R. (1994). The biasing impact of pretrial publicity on juror judgements. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 453-469.

Padawer-Singer, A. M., Singer, A. N., & Singer, R. L. J. (1977). Legal and social- psychological research in the effects of pretrial publicity on juries, numerical makeup of juries, non-unanimous verdict requirements. Law and Psychology Review, 3, 71-79.

Padawer-Singer, A., & Barton, A. H. (1975). Free press, fair trial. In R. J. Simon (Ed.), The fury system in America (pp. 123-139). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Peacock, M. J., Cowan, G., Bommersbach, M., Smith, S. Y., & Stahly, G. (1997). Pretrial predictors of judgments in the O.J. Simpson case. Journal of Social Issues, 53, 441-454.

Pember, D. R. (1984). Does pretrial publicity really hurt? Columbia Journalism Review,23, 16-20.

Posey, A. J., & Dahl, L. M. (2002). Beyond pretrial publicity: Legal and ethical issues associated with change of venue surveys. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 107-125.

Prager, I.G. (1991). Timing of judicial instructions and pretrial publicity. Forensic Reports, 4, 451-453.

Reskin, B. F., & Visher, C. A. (1986). The impacts of evidence and extralegal factors in jurors' decisions. Law and Society Review, 20, 423-438.

Riedel, R. G. (1993). Effects of pretrial publicity on male and female jurors and judges in a mock rape trial case.  Psychological Reports, 73, 819-832.

Riley, S. G. (1973). Pretrial publicity: A field study, Journalism Quarterly, 50, 17-23.

Rollings, H. E., & Si Blascovich, J. (1977). The case of Patricia Hearst: Pretrial publicity and opinion. Journal of Communication, 27, 58-65.

Shaw, J.I. & Skolnick, P. (2004). Effects of prejudicial pretrial publicity from physical and witness evidence on mock juror’s decision making. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,34, 2132-2148.

Sherard, R. G. (1987). Fair press or trial prejudice?: Perceptions of criminal defendants. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 337-340.

Simon, R. J., & Eimermann, T. (1971). The jury finds not guilty: Another look at media influence on the jury. Journalism Quarterly, 48, 343-344.

Sohn, A. B. (1976). Determining guilt or innocence of accused from pretrial news stories. Journalism Quarterly, 53, 100-105.

Sommers, S. R., & Kassin, S. M. (2001). On the many impacts of inadmissible testimony: Selective compliance, need for cognition, and the overcorrection bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1368-1377.

Steblay, M. N. M., Besirevic, J., Fulero, S. M., & Jimenez-Lorente, B. (1999). The effects of pretrial publicity on juror verdicts: A meta-analytic review. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 219-235.

Simon, R. J., & Eimermann, T. (1971). The jury finds not guilty: Another look at media influence on the jury. Journalism Quarterly, 48, 343-344.

Steblay, M.N.M., Hosch, H.M., Culhane, S.E., & McWethy, A. (2006). The impact of juror verdicts of judicial instruction to disregard inadmissible evidence: A meta- analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 469-492.

Strauss, D. A. (1998). Why it's not free speech versus fair trial. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 109-123.

Studebaker, C. A., & Penrod, S. D. (1997). Pretrial publicity: The media, the law, and common sense. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 3, 428-460.

Studebaker, C. A., Robbennolt, J. K., Pathak-Sharma, M. K., & Penrod, S. D. (2000). Assessing pretrial publicity effects: Integrating content analytic results. Law and Human Behavior, 24, 317-336.

Studebaker, C.A., Robbennolt, J.K., Penrod, S.D., Pathak-Sharma, M.K., Groscup, J.L., & Devenport, J.L. (2002). Studying pretrial publicity effects: New methods for improving ecological validity and testing external validity. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 19-41.

Studebaker, C.A., & Penrod, S.D. (2005). Pretrial publicity and its influence on juror decision making. In N. Brewer & D.K. Williams (Eds). Psychology and Law: An empirical perspective (pp. 254-275). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Sue, S., Smith, R. E., & Pedroza, G. (1975). Authoritarianism, pretrial publicity, and awareness of bias in simulated jurors. Psychological Reports, 37, 1299-1302.

Sue, S., Smith, R. E., & Gilbert, R. (1974). Biasing effects of pretrial publicity on judicial decisions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 2, 163-171.

Tankard, J. W., Middleton, K., & Rimmer, T. (1979). Compliance with American Bar Association fair trial-free press guidelines. Journalism Quarterly, 56, 464-468.

Tans, M. D., & Chaffee, S. H. (1966). Pretrial publicity and juror prejudice. Journalism Quarterly, 43, 647-654.

Thompson, W. C., Fong, G. T., & Rosenhan, D. L. (1981). Inadmissible evidence and juror verdicts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 453-463.

Thompson, W.C., & Fuqua, J. “The jury will disregard…”:A brief guide to inadmissible evidence. In J.M. Golding, & MacLeod, C.M. (Eds.), Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 435-452). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vidmar, N. (2002). Case studies of pre- and midtrial prejudice in criminal and civil litigation. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 73-105.  Vidmar, N., & Judson, J. (1981). The use of social sciences in a change of venue application. Canadian Bar Review, 59, 76-102.

Wilcox, W. (1970). The press, the jury, and the behavioral sciences. In C. R. Bush (Ed.), Free press and fair trial: Some dimensions of the problem (pp. 49-106). Atlanta: University of Georgia Press.

Wilson, J. R., & Bornstein, B. H. (1998). Methodolocial considerations in pretrial publicity research: Is the medium the message? Law and Human Behavior, 22, 585-597.


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