Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
At the University of Texas at El Paso

Criminal Justice





Lab Members


Lineups &

Related Links

Contact us

Home Page

Instructional Bias

Barkowitz, P. & Brigham, J. C. (1982). Recognition of faces: Own-race bias, incentive, and time delay. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 255-268.

Brigham, J. C., & Brandt, C. C. (1992). Measuring lineup fairness: Mock witness responses vs. direct evaluation of lineups. Law & Human Behavior, 19, 475-489.

Brigham, J. C., & Pfeifer, J. E. (1994). Evaluating the fairness of lineups., Adult eyewitness testimony: Current trends & developments. (pp. 210-222). Melborne: Cambridge University Press.

Brigham, J. C., & Ready, D. L. (1985). Own-race bias in lineup construction. Law & Human Behavior, 9, 415-424.

Brigham, J. C., Meissner, C. A., & Wasserman, A. W. (1999). Applied issues in the consrtuction and expert assessment of photo lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S73-S92.

Brigham, J. C., Ready, D. J., & Spier, S. A. (1990). Standards for evaluating the fairness of photograph lineups. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 149-163.

Chiroro, X. V., T. (1995). An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 879-894.

Corey, D., Malpass, R. S., & McQuiston, D. E. (1999). Parallelism in mock eyewitness identifications. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, s41-s58.

Cutler, B. L., & Penrod, S. D. (1988). Improving the reliability of eyewitness identification: Lineup construction and presentation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 281-290.

Doob, A. N., & Kirshenbaum, H. M. (1973). Bias in police lineups - partial remembering. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 1(3), 287-293.

Gonzalez, R. E., P. C., & Pembroke, M. (1993). Response bias in lineups and showups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 525-537.

Kilbride, Y. (1983). Ethic bias in the recognition of facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27-41.

Koehnken, G. M., A. (1988). Eyewitness testimony: False alarms on biased instructions? Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 363-370.

Koehnken, G., Malpass, R. S., & Wogalter, M. S. (1996). Forensic applications of line-up research. In R. S. M. S. L. Sporer, & G. Koeheken (Ed.), Psychological issues in eyewitness identification . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Laughery, K. R., Jensen, D. G., & Wogalter, M. S. (1988). Response bias with prototypic faces. In R. S. M. M. Gruneberg, & P. Morris (Ed.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues. (pp. 157-162). Chichester: Wiley.

Levi, A. (1999). An honorable discharge for lineup fairness measurement. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S121-S124.

Levi, A. M. (1998). Protecting innocent defendants, nailing the guilty: A modified sequential line-up. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 265-275.

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Bellinger, K. (1999). Alternatives to the sequential lineup: The importance of controlling the pictures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 315-321.

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Wells, G. L. (1985). Improving eyewitness identification from lineups: Simultaneous versus sequential lineup presentations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 556-564.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Lea, J. A., & Fulford, J. A. (1991). Sequential lineup presentation: Technique matters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 741-745.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Lea, J. A., Nosworthy, G. J., Fulford, J. A., Hector, J., LeVan, V., & Seabrook, C. (1991). Biased lineups: Sequential presentation reduces the problem. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 796-802.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Pozzulo, J. D., Craig, W., Lee, K., & Corber, S. (1997). Simultaneous lineups, sequential lineups, and showups: Eyewitness identification decisions of adults and children. Law & Human Behavior, 21, 391-404.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Ross, D. F., Smith, S. M., & Flanigan, S. (1999). Does race influence measures of lineup fairness? Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S109-S119.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Smith, S. M., & Pryke, S. (1999). Measures of lineup fairness: Do they posdict identification accuracy? Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S93-S107.

Luus, C. A. E., & Wells, G. L. (1991). Eyewitness identification and the selection of distractors for lineups. Law & Human Behavior, 15, 43-57.

Malpass, R. S. (1974). Racial bias in eyewitness identification. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1, 42-44.

Malpass, R. S. (1981). Effective size and defendent bias in eyewitness idenitfication lineups. Law & Human Behavior, 5, 299-309.

Malpass, R. S., & Devine, P. G. (1983). Measuring the fairness of eyewitness idenitifcation lineups. In S. M. A. L.-B. a. B. R. Clifford (Ed.), Evaluating eyewitness evidence. : John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Malpass, R. S., & Devine, P.G. (1981). Eyewitness identification: Lineup instructions and the absence of the offender. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 482-489.

Malpass, R. S., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1999). Measuring lineup fairness. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S1-S7.

Marwitz, D. B., & Wogalter, M. S. (1988). Bias in photo-spreads of faces: A comparison of two lineup construction methods. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the Human Factors Society, Santa Monica.

Meissner, C. A., & Brigham, J. C. (2000). 30 years of investigation the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review. .

Parker, J. F., & Ryan, V. (1993). An attempt to reduce guessing behavior in children's and adults' eyewitness identification. Law & Human Behavior, 17, 11-26.

Phillips, M. R., McAuliff, B. D., Kovera, M. B., & Cutler, B. L. (1999). Double-blind photoarray adminsitration as a safeguard against investigator bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 940-951.

Sporer, S. L. (1993). Eyewitness identification accuracy, confidence, and decision times in simlutaneous and sequential lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 22-33.

Sporer, S. L. (2000). The cross-race bias: Beyond recognition of faces in the laboratory. .

Steblay, N. M. (1997). Social influences in eyewitness recall: A meta-analytic review of lineup instruction effects. Law & Human Behavior, 21(3), 283-297.

Stinson, V., Devenport, J. L., Cutler, B. L., & Kravitz, D. A. (1996). How effective is the presence-of-counsel safeguard? Attorney perceptions of the suggestiveness, fairness, and correctability of biased lineup procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), 64-75.

Stinson, V., Devenport, J. L., Cutler, B. L., & Kravitz, D. A. (1997). How effective is the motion-to-suppress safeguard? Judges' perceptions of the suggestiveness and fairness of biased lineup procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 211-220.

Tredoux, C. (1999). Statistical considerations when determining measures of lineup size and lineup bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S9-S26.

Valentine, T., & Heaton, P. (1999). An evaluation of the fairness of police lineups and video identifications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S59-S72.

Wells, G. L. (1978). Applied eyewitness-testimony research: System variables and estimator variables. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 1546-1557.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1998). "Good, you identified the suspect": Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 360-376.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Distortions in eyewitness' recollections: Can the postidentification-feedback effect be moderated? Paychological Science, 10(2), 138-144.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Measuring the goodness of lineups: Parameter estimation, question effects, and limits to the mock witness paradigm. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S27-S39.

Wells, G. L., & Leippe, M. R., & Ostrom, T. M. (1979). Guidlines for empirically assessing the fairness of a lineup. Law & Human Behavior, 3, 285-293.

Wells, G. L., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1980). On estimating the diagnosticity of eyewitness nonidentifications. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 776-784.

Wells, G. L., & Luus, C. A. E. (1990). The diagnosticity of a lineup should not be confused with the diagnostic value of nonlineup evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 511-516.

Wells, G. L., & Turtle, J. W. (1986). Eyewitness identification: The importance of lineup models. Psychological Bulletin, 99(3), 320-329.

Wells, G. L., Rydell, S. M., & Seelau, E. P. (1993). On the selection of distracters for eyewitness lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 835-844.

Wells, G. L., Small, M., Malpass, R. S., Penrod, S., Fulero, S., & Brimacombe, C. A. E. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. Law & Human Behavior, 23, 603-647.

Wogalter, M. S., Van't Slot, L. J., & Kalsher, M. (1991, ). Bias in police lineups and its reduction by an alternative construction procedure. Paper presented at the Human Factors Society.

Wogalter, M., & Leonard. (1992). Suggestiveness in photospread line-ups: Similarity induces distinctiveness. xxxx.

Wright, B., & Tredoux. (Manuscript). Own race bias in South Africa and England.

Bibliographies | Consultation | Current Research | Lab Members | Lab Publications | Links | Contact Us | Home