Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
Reference list for
ŅComposites, Composite Construction
and Related ThingsÓ
I. Summary. (1000 words)
The following is taken from the ŅconclusionsÓ section in Davies, G. & Valentine, T. (2007). Facial Composites-Forensic Utility and Psychological Research. in R.C.L. Lindsay,. D.F. Ross, J.D. Read & M.P. Toglia, Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology, Vol. 2, Memory for People. Mahwah, NJ- Lawrence Erlbaum.
Skilled police artists remain the benchmark against which all systems must be compared, and no mechanical or software system has yet to equal or outperform them. However, although artists are quick to trumpet their successes, they have also had their failures, and the overall level of accuracy is hard to compute for a skill so idiosyncratic and poorly understood. After three decades of intensive research, it is still unclear for any technique what predicts or postdicts a successful interview. Witnesses are inconsistent in the quality of composites they reproduce from one face to another and over time (Davies et al., 1978a). Neither the witnesses themselves nor the operators are effective in estimating when a likeness is likely to prove to be of good or poor quality (Kovera et al., 1997). A good likeness appears to depend upon an elusive combination of a face whose features may be readily reproduced, an observant and articulate witness, and a skilled operator who knows how to ask the right questions (Davies et al., 1983).
This is not to deny the progress that has been achieved through research and development. Some of the more obvious sources of error evident in earlier systems have been identiŽed and removed. These include a lack of relevant features and sufficient ßexibility of size and positioning to model the full range of faces. For the male Caucasian face, most software systems now allow the skilled operator to fashion a recognizable likeness from life or a photograph (Brace et al., 2000; Cutler et al., 1988). Likewise, fourth generation systems permit witnesses to work on total faces rather than use the traditional approach emphasizing individual features (Gibson et al., 2003).
One area of continuing controversy concerns the possible inhibiting effect of verbal description on facial recall. Dodson, Johnson, and Schooler (1997) demonstrated experimentally that recognition for faces can be impaired if the observer is required to verbally describe them prior to recognition: the "verbal overshadowing effect." It has been recently demonstrated that providing detailed verbal descriptions impairs the witness's ability to subsequently select appropriate features (Wells, Charman, & Olson, 2005). Clark (2000), too, reported that for E-Žt, the recommended practice of re-interviewing the witness about the suspect's appearance midway through construction had a detrimental effect upon Žnal composite quality, a Žnding consistent with overshadowing. However, verbal overshadowing is not an inevitable consequence of describing a face, even under laboratory conditions (Meissner & Brigham, 2001), and delay serves to re- duce any potential impairment (Finger & Pezdek, 1999). The conditions under which verbal encoding interferes with facial memory remain poorly understood. The retrieval- based interference explanation assumes that verbalization impairs the original memory trace of the face (Meissner, Brigham, & Kelley, 2001). However, in some circumstances it appears that verbal recall and visual recognition processes function independently (Davies, 1986a), and an explanation of the verbal overshadowing effect in terms of a criterion shift seems at least as plausible (Clare & Lewandowsky, 2004).
One consideration that perhaps has been insufficiently challenged is the belief that memory for a brießy observed and unfamiliar face is sufŽciently detailed to construct a successful composite. This belief appears to be based on the frequently iterated statement that face recognition is far superior to face recall, and our ability to recognize faces, often after many years, testiŽes to a robust and unique encoding system for all faces. More recent research on face recognition suggests, however, that familiar and unfamiliar faces are encoded in different ways which results in striking differences in subsequent ease of recognition (Bruce & Young, 1998). Even degraded images of familiar individuals caught on CCTV are readily recognized (Burton, Wilson, Cowan, & Bruce, 1999), but unfamiliar faces seen on CCTV are matched to an appropriate photograph very in- accurately indeed, even when participants have continuous access to an image of the face as they carry out the task (Bruce, Henderson, Newman, & Burton, 2001; Davies & Thasen, 2000; Kemp, Howell, & Pike, 1997).
Research from other areas of face processing suggests that memory for the appearance of novel faces may be fragmentary and inadequate. Ellis (1984) noted that verbal descriptions, both in the presence of the face and from memory, were selective and in- complete. Even in recognition memory for novel faces, faces that share certain dominant attributes such as hair style and face shape are readily confused (Davies, Shepherd, & Ellis, 1979). Learning a face takes time and repeated exposure under different viewing conditions (Bruce, 2003).
Schema theory has demonstrated that where memory is imperfect, then plausible re- construction is likely to take place, which may or may not be accurate (Brewer, 1996). In a task like constructing a face, which requires exhaustive recall of all features, there are opportunities for attitudes and assumptions to Žll gaps and color the constructive process. Some years ago, Shepherd, Ellis, McMurran, and Davies (1978) demonstrated the impact of negative and positive stereotypes on Photo& reconstructions. Witnesses constructed composites that were judged as more intelligent and handsome when they were told the man was a lifeboat captain than when he was described as a murderer (see also Oliver, Jackson, Moses, & DangerŽeld, 2004, for an example of the inßuence of racial stereotyping on face recall). More recently, Davies and Oldman (1999) replicated the Žnding of Shepherd et al. with the use of familiar faces and showed that attitudes also inßuenced quality of likeness. Faces made by persons who disliked the target were of a better quality than those made by persons who liked them. As the authors observed, contempt appears to breed familiarity.
It seems likely that the largest distortions due to affect and stereotyping will occur on unfamiliar faces viewed for ßeeting periods, often the conditions prevailing when witnesses to crime view actual suspects. In these circumstances, it may be that for many witnesses, composite production imposes an unrealistic burden upon them, with inevitable consequences for composite quality, irrespective of the system employed. Perhaps, in the light of recent Žndings, composite production should be reserved for witnesses who have had extensive experience of the person concerned. Perhaps feature selection should be conŽned to items mentioned by witnesses in their verbal descriptions. Intelligent systems could be developed that could accurately "suggest" missing features from existing choices of other parts of the face, rather than rely on guesses fueled by feelings and stereotypes.
Probably the Žrst encounter between psychologists and the Identikit was described by Connolly and McKeller (1963): "Having seen this device, and having been subjects in a demonstration, we consider this to be a marked improvement [over verbal descriptions] but also a 'psychological Pandora's box'" (p. 22), adding that "the problem of identiŽcation would repay psychological enquiry" (p. 23). Four generations of composite systems have now been reviewed together with the psychological enquiry they have provoked. Although measurable progress has been made and all systems may claim successes, perhaps the quest for the perfect system may be illusory and we must learn to live within the limitations of witness memory.
II. Meta Analyses and other literature reviews.
Davies, G. & Valentine, T. (2007). Facial Composites-Forensic Utility and Psychological Research. in R.C.L. Lindsay,. D.F. Ross, J.D. Read & M.P. Toglia, Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology, Vol. 2, Memory for People. Mahwah, NJ- Lawrence Erlbaum
III. Empirical Studies published since the latest meta-analysis.
IV. Classic studies.
Anything on composites by Hadyn Ellis, Graham Davies and/or John Shepherd, in any combination.
V. List of studies. (t = mainly theoretical; e = mainly empirical).
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Davies, G. & Jenkins, F. (1985). Witnesses can be Misled By Police Composite Pictures. in Ellis, Jeeves, Newcombe, & Young (Eds.), Aspects of Face Processing (NATO ISI Series). (pp. 154-162). Dordrecht, The Netherlands- Martinus Nijhoff.pdf
Davies, G. M. & Christie, D. (1982). Face recall: An examination of some factors limiting composite production accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67 (1), 103 109.
Davies, G. M. (1981). Face recall systems. In G. Davies, H. Ellis, & J. Shepherd (Eds.), Perceiving and Remembering Faces (pp. 227 250). London: Academic Press.
Davies, G. M. (1983). Composite systems for recalling faces: Helping the police with their enquiries. In A. Trankell (Ed.), Reconstructing the Past: Proceedings of the Stockholm Symposium on Witness Psychology (pp. 299 313). Deventer: Kluwer.
Davies, G. M. (1983). Forensic face recall: The role of visual and verbal information. In S. Lloyd Bostock & B. R. Clifford (Eds.), Evaluating Witness Evidence: Recent Psychological Research and New Perspectives (pp. 103 136). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Davies, G. M. (1996). Children's identiŽcation evidence. In S. L. Sporer, R. S. Malpass, & G. Koehnken (Eds.), Psychological issues in eyewitness identiŽcation (pp. 233-258). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Davies, G. M. (Ed.). (1981). Face recall systems. London: Academic Press.
Davies, G. M., & Milne, A. (1985). Eyewitness composite production: A function of mental or physical reinstatement of context. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 12, 209 220.
Davies, G. M., Ellis, H. D., & Shepherd, J. W. (1985, May 16). Wanted-Faces that Žt the bill. New Scientist, no. 1456,26-29.
Davies, G. M., Ellis, H., & Shepherd, J. (1978). Face identification: The influence of delay upon accuracy of Photofit construction. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 76, 35 42.
Davies, G. M., Ellis, H., & Shepherd, J. (1981). Perceiving and remembering faces. London: Academic Press.
Davies, G. M., Ellis, Hadyn; Shepherd, John. Cue saliency in faces as assessed by the Photofit technique. Perception. 1977; Vol 6(3): 263 269
Davies, G. M., Milne, A., & Shepherd, J. W. (1983). Searching for operator skills in face composite reproduction. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 11, 405 409.
Davies, G. M., Shepherd, J. W., & Ellis, H. D. (1978). Remembering faces: Acknowledging our limitations. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 18, 19 24.
Davies, G. M., Shepherd, J. W., & Ellis, H. D. (1979). Similarity effects in face recognition. American Journal of Psychology, 92,507-523.
Davies, G., & Little, M. (1990). Drawing on memory: Exploring the expertise of a police artist. Medicine, Science, & the Law, 30(4), 345 353.
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Davies, G., & Thasen, S. (2000). Closed-circuit television: How effective an identiŽcation aid? British Journal of Psychology, 91,411-426
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VI. List of Legal Cases.