Confidence

Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
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Confidence

Berg, R. A., Rodriguez, I. A., Schwarts, B. L., & Fisher, R. P. (2000). Effect of delay of first interview and repetition of imterview on accuracy and confidence of recall of a flashbulb-type memory. Paper presented at the APLS, New Orleans.

Berger, J. D. & Herringer, L.G (1991). Individual Differences in Eyewitness Recall Accuracy. The Journal of Social Psychology,131, 807-813

Bothwell, R.K., Brigham, J.C., Deffenbacher, K.A. (1987). Correlation of Eyewitnesses Accuracy and Confidence: Optimality Hypothesis Revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 691-695.

Bradfield, A. L., & Well, G. L. (2000). Post-identification feedback to eyewitness diminishes the certainty-accuracy relation. Paper presented at the SARMAC, MIAMI.

Bradfield, A.L., Wells, G.L. (2000). Post-Identification Feedback to Eyewitnesses Diminishes the Certainty-Accuracy Relation. Poster presented at the American Psychological Society.

Brigham, J. C. (1990). Target person distinctiveness and attractiveness as moderator variables in the confidence-accuracy relationship in eyewitness identifications. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 11, 101-115.

Brigham, J.C. & WolfsKeil, M.P. (1983). Opinions of Attorney's and Law Enforcement Personnel on the Accuracy of Eyewitness Identifications. Law and Human Behavior, 7, 337-349.

Brigham, J.C. (1980). Perspectives on the Impact of Lineup Composition, Race, and Witness Confidence on Identification Accuracy. Law and Human Behavior, 4, 315-321.

Brigham, J.C., Maass, A, Snyder, L.D., Spaulding, K. (1982). Accuracy of Eyewitnesses Identifications in Field Setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 673-681.

Brown, E., Deffenbacher, K., Sturgill, W. (1977). Memory for Faces and the Circumstances of Encounter. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 311-318.

Busey, T., Tunnicliff, J. , Loftus, G., Loftus, E. (2000). What's Good for the Goose isn't always what's good for the gander: Confidence and Accuracy Rely on Different Information. , 1-35.

Busey, T., Tunnicliff, J., Loftus, G., & Loftus, E. (2000). What's good for the goose isn't always what's good for the gander: Confidence and accuracy depend on different information. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7(1), 26-48.

Clifford, B.R., Hollin, C.R. (1981). Effects of the Type of Incident and the number of Perpetrators on Eyewitness Memory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 364- 370.

Clifford, B.R., Scott, J. (1978). Individual and Situational Factors in Eyewitness Testimony. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 352-359.

Courtois, M.R., Mueller, J.H. (1981). Target and Distracter Typicality in Facial Recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 639-645.

Cutler, B. L., & Penrod, S.D. (1989). Moderators of the confidence-accuracy correlation in face recogntion: The role of information processing and base-rates. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 3, 95-107.

Cutler, B.L, Wolfe, R.N. (1989). Self-Monitoring and the Association Between Confidence and Accuracy. Journal of Research in Personality, 23, 410-420.

Cutler, B.L., Penrod, S.D. (1989). Forensically Relevant Moderators of the Relation Between Eyewitnesses Identification Accuracy and Confidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 650-652.

Davies, G., Ellis, H., Shepherd, J. (1978). Face Recognition Accuracy as a Function of Mode of Representation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 180-187.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Leu, J.R., & Brown, E.L. (1981). Memory for faces: Testing method, encoding strategy, and confidence. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 13-26.

Deffenbacher, K.A. (1980). Eyewitnesses Accuracy and Confidence: Can we Infer Anything about their Relationship? Law and Human Behavior, 4, 243-260.

Dunning, D. & Stern, L. B. (1994). Distinguishing accurate from inaccurate eyewitness identifications via inquiries about decision processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 67(5), 818-835.

Fleet, M.L., Brigham, J.C., Bothwell, R.K. (1987). The Confidence-Accuracy Relationship: The Effects of Confidence Assessment and Choosing. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 171-187.

Fox, S. G., & Walters, H. A. (1986). The impact of general versus specific expert testimony and eyewitness confidence upon mock juror judgment. Law & Human Behavior, 10, 215-228.

Hosch, H.M., Cooper, D.S. (1982). Victimization as a Determinant of Eyewitness Accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 649-652.

Kassin, S.M. (1985). Eyewitness Identification: Retrospective Self-Awareness and the Accuracy-Confidence Correlation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 878-893.

Kassin, S.M., Castillo, S.R., Rigby, S. (1991). The Accuracy-Confidence Correlation in Eyewitness Testimony: Limits and Extensions of the Retrospective Self- Awareness Effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 698-707.

Kebbell, M. R., Wagstaff, G. F., & Covey, J. A. (1996). The influence of item difficulty on the relationship between eyewitness confidence and accuracy. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 653-662.

Laugherty, K. R., Duval, G., & Wogalter, M. S. (1986). Dynamics of face recall, Aspects of face processing .

Leippe, M.R. (1980). Effects of Integrative Memorial and Cognitive Processes on the Correspondence of Eyewitness Accuracy and Confidence. Law and Human Behavior, 4, 261-274.

Leippe, M.R., Romanczyk, A., ManionA.P. (1992). Eyewitness Persuasion: How and How Well Do Fact Finders Judge the Accuracy of Adults' and Children's Memory Reports? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 181-197.

Leippe, M.R., Wells, G.L., Ostrom, T.M. (1978). Crime Seriousness as a Determinant of Accuracy in Eyewitness Identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 345- 351.

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Bellinger, K. (1999). Alternatives to the sequential lineup: The importance of controlling the pictures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3), 315-321.

Lindsay, R.C.L, Wells, G.L., & Rumpel, C.M. (1981). Can People Detect Eyewitness- Identification Accuracy Within and Across Situations? Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 79-89.

Lindsay, R.C.L., Wells, G.L. (1980). What Price Justice? Exploring the Relationship of Lineup Fairness to Identification Accuracy. Law and Human Behavior, 4, 303- 313.

Lipton, J.P. (1977). On the Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 90-95.

Luus, C.A.E., Wells, G.L. (1994). Eyewitness Identification Confidence. Adult Eyewitness Testimony Current Trends and Developments. 349-361.

Luus, C.A.E., Wells, G.L. (1994). The Malleability of Eyewitness Confidence: Co- Witness and Perseverance Effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 714-723.

Malpass, & Devine, P.G. (1981). Eyewitness Identification: Lineup Instructions and the Absence of the Offender. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 482-489.

Malpass, R.S., & Devine, P. G. (1981). Guided Memory in Eyewitness Identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 343-350.

McKelvie, S. J. (1990). Effects of exposure time and inversion on the confidence-accuracy relationship in facial memory: A test of the optimality hypothesis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 32-34.

Migueles, G.-B. (1999). Recall, recognition, and confidence patterns in eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 257-268.

Nolan, J., & Markham, R. (1998). The Accuracy-Confidence Relationship in an Eyewitness Task: Anxiety as a Modifier. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 43- 54.

Penrod, S. D., & Cutler, B. L. (1995). Witness confidence and witness accuracy: Accessing their forensic relation. Public Policy, Psychology & Law, 1, 817-845.

Perfect, T.J., Watson, E.L., Wagstaff, G.F. (1993). Accuracy of Confidence Ratings Associated with General Knowledge and Eyewitness Memory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 144-147.

Phillips, M. R., McAuliff, B. D., Kovera, M. B., & Cutler, B. L. (1999). Double-blind photo array administration as a safeguard against investigator bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 940-951.

Pigott, M..A. & Brigham, J.C. (1985). Relationship Between Accuracy of Prior Description and Facial Recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, 547-555.

Read, J. D., Lindsay, D. S., & Nicholls, T. (1998). The Relation Between Confidence and Accuracy in Eyewitness Identification Studies: Is the Conclusion Changing? In C. Thompson, D. Herrmann, J. Read, D. Bruce, D. Payne, & M. Toglia (Eds.), Eyewitness Memory: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (pp.107-130). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Read, J.D., Vokey, J.R., Hammersley, R. (1990). Changing Photos of Faces: Effects of Exposure Duration and Photo Similarity on Recognition and the Accuracy- Confidence Relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cogntition, 16, 870-882.

Robinson, M.D., Johnson, J.T., & Herndon, F. (1997). Reaction Time and Assessment of Cognitive Effort as Predictors of Eyewitness Memory Accuracy and Confidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 416-425.

Robinson, M.D., & Johnson, J.T. (1996). Recall Memory, Recognition Memory, and the Eyewitness Confidence-Accuracy Correlation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 587-594.

Robinson, M.D., & Johnson, J.T. (1998). How Not to Enhance the Confidence-Accuracy Relation: The Detrimental Effects of Attention to the Identification Process. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 409-429.

Saslove, H. & Yarmey, D.A. (1980). Long-Term Auditory Memory: speaker Identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 111-116.

Smith, V. L., Kassan, S. M., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1989). Eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Within- versus between-subjects correlations. JAP, 74(2), 356-359.

Smith, V. L., Kassan, S. M., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1989). Eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Within- versus between-subjects correlations. JAP, 74(2), 356-359.

Smith, V.L., Ellsworth, P.C., & Cassin, S.M. (1989). Eyewitness Accuracy and Confidence: Within-Versus Between Subjects Correlations, Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 356-359.

Sporer, S. L. (1993). Eyewitness identification accuracy, confidence, and decision times in simlutaneous and sequential lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 22-33.

Sporer, S. L., Penrod, S., Read, D. & Cutler, B. (1995). Choosing, confidence, and accuracy; A meta-analysis of the confidence-accuracy relation in eyewitness identification studies. Psychological Bulletin, 118(3), 315-327.

Stern, L. B., & Dunning, D. (1994). Distinguishing accurate from inaccurate eyewitness identification: A reality monitoring approach. .

Thompson, J. (2000, ). I was certain, but I was wrong. New York Times.

Thompson, M. (1996). Instability of individual differences in the association between confidence judgments and memory performance. Memory & Cognition, 24(2), 226-234.

Wells, G. L. (1985). Verbal descriptions of faces from memory: Are they diagnostic of identification accuracy? Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 619-626.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1998). "Good, you identified the suspect": Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 360-376.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Measuring the goodness of lineups: Parameter estimation, question effects, and limits to the mock witness paradigm. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S27-S39.

Wells, G. L., & Murray, D. M. (1984). Eyewitness confidence. In G. L. W. E. F. Loftus (Ed.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives (pp. 155-170). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wells, G. L., Ferguson, T. J., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1981, February). The tractability of eyewitness confidence and its implications for triers of fact. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(6), 688-696.

Wells, G. L., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Ferguson, T. J. (1979). Accuracy, confidence, and juror perceptions in eyewitness identifications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 440-448.

Wells, G. L., Rydell, S. M., & Seelau, E. P. (1993). On the selection of distracters for eyewitness lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 835-844.

Wells, G.L. & Leippe, M.R. (1981). How do Triers of Fact Infer the Accuracy of Eyewitness Identifications? Using Memeory for Peripheral Detail can be Misleading. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 682-687.

Wells, G.L., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (1985). Methodological Notes on the Accuracy- Confidence Relation in Eyewitness Identifications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 413-419.

Wells, G.L., Lindsay, R.C.L., & Ferguson, T.J. (1979). Accuracy, Confidence, and Juror Perceptions in Eyewitness Identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 440-448.

Wells,G.L., Lindsay, R.C.L., & Ferguson, T.J. (1981). The Tractability of Eyewitness Confidence and its Implications for Triers of Fact. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 688-696.

Yarmey, A.D., Yarmey, M.J. (1997). Eyewitness Recall and Duration Estimates in Field Settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 330-344.

Yarmey, A.D., Yarmey, M.J., & Yarmey, A.L. (1996). Accuracy of Eyewitness Identifications in Showups and Lineups. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 459-477.

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