Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
At the University of Texas at El Paso

Criminal Justice







Lineups &

Related Links

Contact us

Home Page

Context and Context Reinstatement

Anderson, J.R., & Bower, G.H. (1972). Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall. Psychological Review, 79, 97-123.

Baddeley, A.D. (1982). Domains of recollection. Psychological Review, 89, 708-729.

Bekerian, D.A., & Bowers, J.M. (1983). Eyewitness testimony: Were we misled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9, 139-145.

Boon, J., & Noon, E. (1994). Changing perspectives in cognitive interviewing. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 59-69.

Bower, G.H., & Karlin, M.B. (1974). Depth of processing pictures of faces and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 751-757.

Bowers, J.M., & Bekerian, D.A. (1984). When will postevent information distort eyewitness testimony? Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 466-472.

Brigham, J.C., Maass, A., Snyder, L.D., & Spaulding, K., (1982). Accuracy of eyewitness identifications in a field setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 673-681.

Bruce, V. (1982). Changing faces: Visual and non-visual coding processes in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 105-116.

Clifford, B. R., & George, R. (1996). A field evaluation of training in three methods of witness/victim investigative interviewing. Psychology, Crime & Law, 2, 231-248.

Cutler, B.L., & Penrod, S.D. (1988). Improving the reliability of eyewitness identifications: Lineup construction and Presentation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 281-290.

Cutler, B.L., Penrod, S.D. & Martens, T.K., (1987). Improving the reliability of eyewitness identification: Putting context into context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 629-637.

Cutler, B.L., Penrod, S.D., O'Rourke, T.E., & Martens, T.K. (1986). Unconfounding the effects of contextual cues on eyewitness identification accuracy. Social Behaviour, 1, 113-134.

Davies G.M. (1988). Faces and places: Laboratory research on context and face recognition. In G.M. Davies & D. Thomson (Eds.) Memory in Context: Context in Memory. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Davies, G. (1986). Context effects in episodic memory. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 6, 157-174.

Davies, G., & Milne, A. (1982). Recognizing faces in and out of context. Current Psychological Research, 2, 235-246.

Davies, G.M. & Thomson, D.M. (1988). Memory in Context: Context in Memory. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Davies, G.M., & Milne, A. (1985). Eyewitness composite production as a function of mental or physical reinstatement of context. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 12, 209-220.

Daw, P.S., & Parkin, A.J. (1981). Observations on the efficiency of two different processing strategies for remembering faces. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 35, 351-355.

Deffenbacher, K.A., Leu, J.R., & Brown, E.L. (1981). Memory for faces: testing method, encoding strategy, and confidence. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 13-26.

Devine, P.G. & Malpass, R.S. (1985). Orienting strategies in differential face recognition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 33-40.

Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York: Dover (Originally published, 1885.)

Finger K., & Pezdek, K. (1999). The effect of the cognitive interview on face identification accuracy: Release from verbal overshadowing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3, 340-348.

Fisher, R.P. & Geiselman, R.E. (1992). Memory-enhancing techniques for investigative interviewing. Springfield, Ill: C. Charles Thomas.

Fisher, R.P., Geiselman, R.E. & Amador, M., (1989). Field test of the Cognitive Interview: Enhancing the recollection of actual victims and witnesses of crime. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 722-727.

Fisher, R.P., Geiselman, R.E., Raymond, D.S., Jurkevich, L.M. & Warhaftig, M.L. (1987). Enhancing Enhanced Eyewitness Memory: Refining the Cognitive Interview. Journal o Police Science and Administration, 15, 291-297.

Fisher, R.P. & McCauley, M.R. (1995). Information retrieval: Interviewing witnesses. In N. Brewer and C. Wilson (Eds.), Psychology and policing (pp. 81-99). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Fisher, R.P., McCauley, M.R. & Geiselman, R.E. (1994). Improving eyewitness testimony with the cognitive interview. In J.D. Read & M. Toglia (Eds.) Adult eyewitness testimony: Current trends and developments. London: Cambridge University Press.

Franzen. S. & Sporer, S.L. (1993a). Personenverwechslungen durch irrefuehrende Rekonstruktionsbilder: Zum EinfluB nachtraeglicher Informationen und der Wiederherstellung des Wahrnehmungskontextes. In S.L. Sporer & D. Meurer & (Hrsg.), Die BeeinfluBbarkeit von Zuegenaussagen. Marburg: N.G. Elwert.

Franzen. S. & Sporer, S.L. (1993b). Personenverwechslungen und Moeglichkeiten ihrer Vermeidung: Koennen Augenzeugen durch Visualisierung gegen den EinflluB von irrefuehrenden Rekonstruktionsbildern immunisiert werden? In S.L. Sporer & D. Meurer (Hrsg.), Die BeeinfluBbarkeit von Zeugenausagen. Marburg: N.G. Elwert.

Geiselman, R. E., Taras, L., Schaap, R., & Woodruff, N. (1994). Recall of constituent elements from multiple episodes of an event using the cognitive interview. Journal for Police and Criminal Psychology, 10 (1), 1-7.

Geiselman, R.E. & Fisher, R.P., (1985). Interviewing victims and witnesses of crime. Research in Brief: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20531.

Geiselman, R.E. (1988). Improving eyewitness memory through mental reinstatement of context. In G.M. Davies & D.M. Thomson, Memory in Context: Context in Memory. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Geiselman, R.E., Fisher, R.P., Cohen, G., Holland, H., & Surtes, L. (1986). Eyewitness responses to leading and misleading questions under the cognitive interview. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 14, 31-39.

Geiselman, R.E., Fisher, R.P., Firstenberg, I., Hutton, L.A., Sullivan, S.J., Avetissian, I.V. & Prosk, A.L. (1984). Enhancement of eyewitness memory: An empirical evaluation of a cognitive interview. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 12, 74-80.

Geiselman, R.E., Fisher, R.P., MacKinnon, D.P., & Holland, H.L. (1985a). Eyewitness memory enhancement in the police interview: Cognitive retrieval mnemonics versus hypnosis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 401-412.

Geiselman, R.E., Fisher, R.P., MacKinnon, D.P., & Holland, H.L. (1986). Eyewitness memory enhancement with the cognitive interview. American Journal of Psychology, 99, 385-401.

George, R. & Clifford, B. (1992). Making the most of witnesses. Policing, 8, 185-198.

Gibling, F., & Davies, G.M. (1988). Reinstatement of context following exposure to postevent information. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 129-141.

Haber, R.N., & Erdelyi, M.H. (1967). Emergence and recovery of initially unavailable perceptual material. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 6, 618-628.

Jenkins, F., & Davies, G.M. (1985). Contamination of facial memory through exposure to misleading composite pictures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 164-176.

Kebbell, M. R., Milne, R., & Wagstaff, G. F. (1999). The cognitive interview: A survey of its forensic effectiveness. Psychology, Crime & Law, 5, 101-115.

Kerr, N.H., & Winograd, E. (1982). Effects of contextual elaboration on face recognition. Memory & Cognition, 10, 603-609.

Klatzky, R.L. & Erdelyi, M.H. (1985). The response criterion problem in tests of hypnosis and memory. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 246-257.

Klee, M., Leseaux, M., Malai, C. & Tiberghien, G., (1982). Nouveaux Effets De Contexte Dans La Reconnaissance De Visages Non Familiers. Revue De Psychologie Appliquee, 32, 109-119.

Koehn, C. E., & Fisher, R. P. (1997). Constructing facial composites with the Mac-A-Mug Pro system. Psychology, Crime & Law, 3, 209-218.

Koehn, C. E., Fisher, R. P., & Cutler, B. L. (1999). Using cognitive interviewing to construct facial composites. In D. Canter & L. Alison (Eds.), Psychology and Criminal Detection (pp. 41-63). Brookfield: Dartmouth.

Koehnken, G. (1992). The cognitive interview: A meta-analysis. Paper presented at the Third European Congress on Law and Psychology in Oxford, England.

Koehnken, G. (1993). Behavioral correlates of statement credibility: Theories, Paradigms, and results. To appear in: F. Losel, J. Haisch, H. Wegener (Eds.): Advances in legal psychology: Psychological research in the criminal justice system. Berlin: Springer.

Koehnken, G., Milne, R., Memon, A. and Bull, R (1994, March). A meta-analysis of the effects of the Cognitive Interview. Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the American Psychology-Law Society, Santa Fe.

Koehnken,G., Thuerer, C. & Zoberbier, D. (1994). The cognitive interview: Are the interviewers' memories enhanced too? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8 (1), 13-24.

Krafka, C., & Penrod, S. (1985). Reinstatement of context in a field experiment on eyewitness identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 58-69.

Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17 (3), 349-358.

Lindsay, R.C.L., Wallbridge, H. & Drennan, D. (1987). Do the clothes make the man? An exploration of the effect of lineup attire on eyewitness identification accuracy. Canadian Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 19, 463-478.

Loftus, E.F. (1979). Eyewitness testimony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Loftus, E.F., Miller, D.G., & Burns, H.J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 19-43,

Luu, T. N. & Geiselman, R. E. (1993). Cognitive retrieval techniques and order of feature construction in the formation of composite facial images. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 9, 34-39.

Malpass, R.S. (1996). Enhancing eyewitness memory. In S. Sporer, R.S. Malpass and G. Koehnken (Eds.), Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification. (pp. 177-204). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Malpass, R.S., & Devine, P. G. (1981b). Guided memory in eyewitness identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 343-350.

Malpass, R.S., & Devine, P.G. (1981a). Eyewitness identification: Lineup instructions and the absence of the offender. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 482-489.

Malpass, R.S., & Devine, P.G. (1984). Research on suggestion in lineups and photospreads. In G.L. Wells & E.F. Loftus (Eds.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mantwill, M., Köhnken, G., & Ascherman, E. (1995). Effects of the cognitive interview on the recall of familiar and unfamiliar events. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80 (1), 68-78.

McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 1-16.

McSpadden, M., Schooler, J.W., & Loftus, E.F. (1988). Here today and gone tomorrow: The appearance and disappearance of context effects. In G. Davies & D. Thomson, Memory in Context: Context in Memory. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Memon, A. & Bull, R. (1991). The cognitive interview: origins, empirical support, evaluation and practical implications. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1, 291-307.

Memon, A., & Bruce, V. (1983). The effects of encoding strategy and context change on face recognition. Human Learning, 2, 313-326.

Memon, A., & Bruce, V. (1985). Context effects in episodic studies of verbal and facial memory: A review. Current Psychological Research & Reviews, Winter 1985-86, 349-369.

Memon, A., Holley, A., Milne, R., Koehnken, G. & Bull, R. (in press). Towards understanding the effects of interviewer trainaing in evaluating the cognitive interview. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Memon, A. & Köhnken, G. (1992). Helping witnesses to remember more: The cognitive interview. Expert Evidence, 39-48.

Memon, A., Wark, L., Bull, R., & Köhnken, G. (1997). Isolating the effects of the cognitive interview techniques. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 179-197.

Memon, A., Wark, L., Holley, A., Bull, R., & Köhnken, G. (1997). Eyewitness performance in cognitive and structured interviews. Memory, 5 (5), 639-656.

Mingay, D.J. (1987). The effect of hypnosis on eyewitness memory: Reconciling forensic claims and research findings. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 36, 163-183.

Mueller, J.H., & Wherry, K.L. (1980). Orienting strategies at study and test in facial recognition. American Journal of Psychology, 93, 107-117.

Mueller, J.H., Carlomusto, M., & Goldstein, A.G. (1978). Orienting task and study time in facial recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11, 313-316.

Orne, M.T., Soskis, D.A., Dinges, D.F. & Orne, E.C. (1984). Hypnotically induced testimony In Wells, G.L. & Loftus, E.F. (Eds.) Eyewitness Testimony: Psychological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Palmer, S.E. (1975). The effects of contextual scenes on the identification of objects. Memory and Cognition, 13, 519-526.

Patterson, K.E., & Baddeley, A.D. (1977). When face recognition fails. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 406-417.

Peris, J.L., & Tiberghien, G. (1984). Effet de contexte et recherche conditionnelle dans la reconnaissance de visages non familiers. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 4, 323-333.

Pigott, M.A. (1988, February). A field study on the relationship between description accuracy and identification accuracy. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Psychology - Law Society, Miami Beach, FL.

Sanders, G.S. (1984). The effects of context cues on eyewitness identification responses. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 386-397.

Shapiro, P. & Penrod, S.D. (1986). A meta-analysis of the facial identification literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 139-156.

Smith, M.C. (1983). Hypnotic memory enhancement of witnesses: Does it work? Psychological Bulletin, 94, 387-407.

Smith, S.M. (1979). Remembering in and out of context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 460-471.

Smith, S.M. (1984). A comparison of two techniques for reducing context-dependent forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 12, 477-482.

Smith, S.M. (1988) Environmental Context-Dependent Memory In G. Davies & D. Thomson (Eds.) Memory in Context: Context in Memory. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, S.M., Glenberg, A., & Bjork, R.A. (1978). Environmental context and human memory. Memory and Cognition, 6, 342-353.

Sporer, S. L. (????). Person descriptions as retrieval cues: Do they really help? Unpublished manuscript.

Sporer, S.L. (1989). Verbal and visual processes in person identification. In H. Wegener, F. Loesel, & J. Haisch (Eds.), Criminal behavior and the justice system: Psychological perspectives (pp. 303-324). New York: Springer.

Sporer, S.L. (1991). Deep - deeper - deepest? Encoding strategies and the recognition of human faces: A critical comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning, Memory and Cognition, 17, 323-333.

Sporer, S.L. (1993a). Clothing as a contextual cue in facial recognition. German Journal of Psychology, 17, 183-199.

Sporer, S.L. (1993b). Eyewitness identification accuracy, confidence and decision times in simultaneous and sequential lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 22-33.

Steblay, N.M. (1992). A Meta-analytic review of the weapon focus effect. Law and Human Behavior, 16, 413-424.

Thomson, D.M., Robertson, S.L., & Vogt, R. (1982). Person recognition: the effect of context. Human Learning, 1, 137-154.

Tulving E. (1983). Elements of Episodic Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tulving, E., & Bower, G.H. (1974). The logic of memory representations. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, New York: Academic Press.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D.M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352-373.

Warrington, E.K., & Ackroyd, C. (1975). The effect of orienting tasks on recognition memory. Memory and Cognition, 3, 140-142.

Wells, G.L. & Hryciw, B. (1984). Memory for faces: Encoding and retrieval operations. Memory and Cognition, 12, 338-344.

Wells, G.L., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (1980). On estimating the diagnosticity of eyewitness nonidentifications. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 776-784.

Winograd, E. (1976). Recognition memory for faces following nine different judgments. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 8, 419-421.

Winograd, E. (1978). Encoding operations which facilitate memory for faces across the life span. In M.M. Gruneberg, P.E. Morris, & R.N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory. London: Academic Press.

Winograd, E., & Rivers-Bulkeley, N.T. (1977). Effects of changing context on remembering faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 397-405.

Yuille, J.C. & Kim, C.K. (1987). A field study of the forensic use of hypnosis. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 19, 418-419.

Bibliographies | Consultation | Current Research | Lab Members | Lab Publications | Links | Contact Us | Home