Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
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Delay and Exposure

Barkowitz, P. &. Brigham, J. C. (1982). Recognition of faces: Own-race bias, incentive, and time delay. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 255-268.

Berg, R. A., Rodriguez, I. A., Schwartz, B. L., & Fisher, R. P. (2000, ). Effect of delay of first interview and repetition of interview on accuracy and confidence of recall of a flashbulb-type memory. Paper presented at the APLS, New Orleans.

Brigham, J. C., & Cairns, D. L. (1988). The effect of mug shot inspections on eyewitness identification accuracy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1394-1410.

Brigham, J. C., Maass, A., Snyder, L. D., & Spaulding, K. (1982). The accuracy of eyewitness identifications in a field setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 42, 673-681.

Brown, E., Deffenbacher, K., & Sturgill, W. (1977). Memory for faces and the circumstances of encounter. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 311-318.

Chance, J. E. & Goldstein, A.G. (1987). Retention interval and face recognition: Response latency measures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 415-418.

Courtois, M. R., & Mueller, J.H. (1981). Target and distractor typicality in facial recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 639-645.

Davies, G., Ellis, H., & Shepherd, J. (1978). Face identification: The influence of delay upon accuracy of photofit construction. Journal of Police Science and administration, 6, 35-42.

Davies, S., & Ellis. (1979). Effects of interpolated mug shot exposure on accuracy of eyewitness identification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 232-237.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Carr, T.H., & Leu, J.R. (1981). Memory for words, pictures, and faces: Retroactive interference, forgetting and reminiscence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7, 299-304.

Dunning, S. (1992). Examining the generality of eyewitness hypernesia: A close look at time delay and question type. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6 (643-657).

Dysart, J., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Hammond, R. (2000, ). Mug shot exposure prior to lineup identification: Interference, transference, and commitment effects. Paper presented at the APLS, New Orleans.

Ellis, S. (1987). Analysis of the mechanisms by which human observers acquire knowledge about faces. Final Report to Econimic and Social Research Council (Award No. C00232260).

Goldstein, A. G., & Chance, J. (1971). Visual recognition memory for complex configurations. Perception and Psychophysics, 9, 237-241.

Goldstein, A. G., & Chance, J. E. (1980). Memory for faces and schema theory. Journal of Psychology, 105, 47-59.

Greve, K. W., & Bauer, R.M. (1990). Implicit learning of new faces in prosopagnosia: An application of the mere exposure paradigm. Neuropsychologia, 28, 165-141.

Groninger, L. D. (2000). Face-name mediated learning and long-term retention: The role of images and imagery process. American Journal of Psychology, 113(2), 199-219.

Hess, T. M., & Slaughter, S. J. (1986). Specific exemplar retention and prototype abstraction in young and old adults. Psychology and Aging, 1, 202-207.

Jenkins, D. (1985). Contamination of facial memory through exposure to misleading composite pictures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(1), 164-176.

Krouse, F. L. (1981). Effects of pose, pose change, and delay on face recognition performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 651-654.

Laugherty, K. R., Alexander, J. F., & Lane, A. B. (1971). Recognition of human faces: Effects of target exposure time, target position, pose position and type of photograph. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 477-483.

Laugherty, K. R., Fessler, P. K., Lenorovitz, D. R., & Yoblick, D. A. (1974). Time delay and similarity effects in facial recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 490-496.

Loftus, E. F. (1979). Eyewitness testimony.

MacLin, O. H., Malpass, R. S., & MacLin, M. K. (2001). Race, arousal, exposure, and delay: An examination of factors mediating face recognition. Psychology, Public Policy & Law. 7(1), 98-118.

Malpass, R. S., Lavigueur, H., & Weldon, D.E. (1973). Verbal and visual training in face recognition. Perception and Psychophysics, 14, 285-292.

McKelvie, S. J. (1990). Effects of exposure time and inversion on the confidence-accuracy relationship in facial memory: A test of the optimality hypothesis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 32-34.

Mita, T. H., Dermer, M. & Knight, J. (1977). Reversed facial images and the mere-exposure hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 597-601.

Posner, M. I., & Keele, S. W. (1970). Retention of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 304-308.

Read, J. D., Vokey, J.R., & Hammersley, R. (1990). Changing photos of faces: Effects of exposure, duration and photo similarity on recognition and the accuracy-confidence relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 870-882.

Reynolds, J. K., & Pezdek, K. (1992). Face recognition memory: The effects of exposure duration and encoding instruction. .

Sanders, Glenn S.; and Warnick, Dell. (1980). Some Conditions Maximizing Eyewitness Accuracy: A Learning/Memory Analogy. Journal of Criminal Justice, 8, 395-403.

Scapinello, K. F., & Yarmey, A.D. (1970). The role of familiarity and orientation in immediate and delayed recognition of pictorial stimuli. Psychonomic Science, 24, 329-330.

Shepherd, J. (1983). Identification after long delays. In B. R. C. S.M.A. Lloyd-Bostock (Ed.), Evaluating witness evidence (pp. 173-187). New York: Wiley.

Solso, R. L., & McCarthy, J. E. (1981). Prototype formation of faces: A case of pseudo-memory. British Journal of Psychology, 72, 499-503.

Walker-Smith, G. J. (1978). The effects of delay and exposure duration in a fce recognition task. Perception and Psychophysics, 24, 63-70.

Wickham, L. H. V., Morris, P. E., & Fritz, C. O. (2000). Facial distinctiveness: Its measurement, distribution and influence on immediate and delayed recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 99-123.

Wogalter, M. S. (1991, ). Effects of post-exposure description and imaging on subsequent face recognition performance. Paper presented at the Human Factors Society.

Wogalter, M. S., Cayard, J. A., & Jarrard, S. W. (xxxx). Massed versus distributed exposure and imaging of faces: Changing the test view. Current Psychological Research and Reviews.

Yarmey, A. D. (1971). Recognition memory for familiar public 'faces': Effects of orientation and delay. Psychonomic Science, 24, 286-288.

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monographs, 2, 1-27.

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