Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory
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Structural Bias, and mock witness evaluation

Brigham, J. C., & Brandt, C. C. (1992). Measuring lineup fairness: Mock witness responses vs. direct evaluation of lineups. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 475-489.

Brigham, J. C., & Ready, D. L. (1985). Own-race bias in lineup construction. Law & Human Behavior, 9, 415-424.

Brigham, J. C., Meissner, C. A., & Wasserman, A. W. (1999). Applied issues in the consrtuction and expert assessment of photo lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S73-S92.

Brigham, J. C. & Pfeifer, J. E. (1994). Evaluating the fairness of lineups. Adult Eyewitness Testimony: Current Trends & Developments (pp. 201-222). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Brigham, J. C., Ready, D. J., & Spier, S. A. (1990). Standards for evaluating the fairness of photograph lineups. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 149-163.

Buckhout, R., Rabinowitz, M., Alfonso, V., Kanellis, D., & Anderson, J. (1988). Empirical assessment of lineups: Getting down to cases. Law and Human Behavior, 12 (3), 323-331.

Corey, D., Malpass, R. S., & McQuiston, D. E. (1999). Parallelism in mock eyewitness identifications. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, s41-s58.

Cutler, B. L., & Penrod, S. D. (1988). Improving the reliability of eyewitness identification: Lineup construction and presentation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 281-290.

Doob, A. N. & Kirshenbaum, H. M. (1973). Bias in police lineups — partial remembering. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 18, 287-293.

Gonzalez, R., Davis, J., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1995). Who should stand next to the suspect? Problems in the assessment of lineup fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4, 525-531.

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Wells, G. L. (1985). Improving eyewitness identification from lineups: Simultaneous versus sequential lineup presentations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 556-564.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Lea, J. A., & Fulford, J. A. (1991). Sequential lineup presentation: Technique matters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 741-745.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Lea, J. A., Nosworthy, G. J., Fulford, J. A., Hector, J., LeVan, V., & Seabrook, C. (1991). Biased lineups: Sequential presentation reduces the problem. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 796-802.

Lindsay, R. C. L., Pozzulo, J. D., Craig, W., Lee, K., & Corber, S. (1997). Simultaneous lineups, sequential lineups, and showups: Eyewitness identification decisions of adults and children. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 391-404.

Malpass, R. S. (1981). Effective size and defendant bias in eyewitness identification lineups. Law and Human Behavior, 5(4), 299-309.

Malpass, R. S. & Devine, P.G. (1981). Eyewitness identification: Lineup instructions and the absence of the offender. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 482-489.

Malpass, R. S. & Devine, P. G. (1983). Measuring the fairness of eyewitness identification in lineups. Evaluating Eyewitness Evidence (pp. 81-102). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Malpass, R. S. & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1999). Measuring line-up fairness. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 1-7.

Malpass, R. S, Tredoux, C. G. & McQuiston-Surrett, D. E. (in press). Lineup construction and lineup fairness. in R. Lindsay, D. Ross, J. D. Read & M. P. Toglia (Eds.), Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology (Vol. 2): Memory for People. Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.

McQuiston, D.E. & Malpass, R.S. (2002). Validity of the Mockwitness Paradigm: Testing the Assumptions. Law and Human Behavior, 26(4), 439-453.

Sporer, S. L. (1993). Eyewitness identification accuracy, confidence, and decision times in simlutaneous and sequential lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 22-33.

Sporer, S. L. (1994). Decision times and eyewitness identification accuracy in simultaneous and sequential lineups., Adult eyewitness testimony: Current trends and development .

Tredoux, C. G. (1998). Statistical inference on measures of lineup fairness. Law and Human Behavior, 22(2), 217-237.

Valentine, T., & Heaton, P. (1999). An evaluation of the fairness of police lineups and video identifications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, S59-S72.

Wells, G. L. (1993). What do we know about eyewitness identification? American Psychologist, 48(5), 553-571.

Wells, G. L. (1984). The psychology of lineup identifications. Journal of Applied Soical Psychology, 14, 89-103.

Wells, G. L. (1985). Verbal descriptions of faces from memory: Are they diagnostic of identification accuracy? Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 619-626.

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Measuring the goodness of lineups: Parameter estimation, question effects, and limits to the mock witness paradigm. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S27-S39.

Wells, G. L., & Luus, E. (1990). Police lineups as experiments: Social methodology as a framework for properly-conducted lineups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 106-117.

Wells, G. L., Leippe, M. R., & Ostrom, T. M.. (1979). Guidelines for empirically assessing the fairness of a lineup. Law and Human Behavior, 3 (4), 285-293.

Wells, G. L., Rydell, S. M., & Seelau, E. P. (1993). On the selection of distracters for eyewitness lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 835-844.

Wells, G. L., Small, M., Malpass, R. S., Penrod, S., Fulero, S., & Brimacombe, C. A. E. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 603-647.

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